Walnut Canyon National Monument is located approximately 7.5 miles (12km) east of Flagstaff. Walnut Canyon National Monument was established by President Woodrow Wilson on November 30, 1915, to preserve ancient cliff dwellings.
The forests surrounding Walnut Canyon National Monument contain hundreds of archeological sites and artifacts.A few are Archaic sites, showing that people were here between 2500 B.C. and A.D. 1. But most are from a prehistoric farming culture that flourished around Flagstaff from about A.D. 600 until 1400.To archeologists, this was part of the Sinagua culture, from the Spanish "sin agua" meaning without water.Sinagua refers to various archeological sites and objects, found in this part of Arizona, that share similar characteristics. It is not the name of a tribe or clan of people.