Among the great landscape photographers, Ansel Adams is perhaps the most widely recognized, but what you may not know about Adams is that he was, in the early 1940s, employed by the U.S. Department of the Interior as a “Photographic Muralist,” commissioned to capture images of the country’s national parks and indigenous peoples. The intent was to display the images in the Department’s Washington, D.C. headquarters. Adams delivered more than 200 prints, but as America’s entry in to World War II became the national focus, his assignment was ended and the prints sat largely forgotten for nearly seventy years, until in 2010, when then Secretary of the Interior Kenneth Salazar commissioned mural prints to be made for display, finally bringing completion to the project. In his feature “Ansel’s Public Works” William Sawalich shares this fascinating story, which culminates in the appointment of Dominic Byrd-McDevitt by the National Archives & Records Administration to digitize the collection and make them publicly available.
Of the archive of images, which you can view at Wikimedia Commons, Sawalich notes: “Adams is known for his beautiful black and white prints, but many of the images from the 1942 Mural Project lack some of the drama for which the photographer’s work is known. This is likely because these 220 8×10 prints (plus one image he made years earlier but included in the selection submitted) are essentially proof prints—straight prints of negatives that were all along intended for more darkroom attention—for simple reference purposes. When reprinted in 2010 under the guidance of Interior Secretary Salazar, museum specialists not only rephotographed and retouched those original prints, but applied a bit of creative reinterpretation to bring the images more inline with the dramatic style that is now so closely associated with Adams prints.”
In the process of writing his article, Sawalich also came across contemporaneous correspondence and other supporting documents that offer a uniquely personal window into the collaboration.
“I think that the fact that you find works like this in the official records of the Interior Department,” Dominic Byrd-McDevitt says, “alongside mundane-seeming memos and correspondence, helps to humanize Adams and sheds light on the many varied and sometimes unexpected valuable records produced in the course of our government’s operations over the years.”
First Assistant Secretary of the Interior E. K. Burlew writes Adams to propose the assignment. Ansel responds outlining the details of the project as he envisions it.
According to this memorandum, Adams’ pay rate during his government employment was $20 per day, plus $5 per diem, and he was not to exceed 180 working days per year. A higher pay rate, or longer contract duration, would have required congressional approval.
Following the attack on Pearl Harbor and the U.S. entry into World War II, Adams seeks guidance from Assistant Secretary Burlew.
Adams reveals an inclination toward public service and a willingness to produce work without charge to see a project through to completion. “I realize there will be, perhaps, no funds for this work, but I naturally feel obligated to complete it, and am happy to do so. However, if there is any chance of applying some of that remaining $700 to this, I would appreciate it.”
“With the material I now have,” Ansel wrote in the summer of 1942, “I could make up a stunning exhibit of National Park subjects. The Parks are certainly one of the fine things ‘we are fighting for.’”
Aware that focus on the war effort could potentially suspend or terminate his assignment, Adams was eager to complete the project. “I may be in either the Navy or the Army (in a technical photographic capacity) by Fall”, Adams wrote, “so I am anxious to get out as much work along the lines discussed as possible before I get into the War work.”
On September 10, 1979, Ansel Adams visited the National Archives to view some of the images he produced and printed nearly 40 years earlier.