|This Article Features Photo Zoom|
Readers of Outdoor Photographer are attracted to DSLRs with large, high-res sensors. We want to record details, shoot wildlife action at high speed and have the ability to crop and enlarge the images to make big prints. Today, we have 36-megapixel DSLRs, and DSLRs and SLTs that can shoot 16- to 24-megapixel RAW files at 12 fps. So the need for fast, high-capacity memory cards has never been greater. And the interest in time-lapse shooting as well as full HD video also requires fast, high-capacity cards. Fortunately, they're available—and for much less money per MB than a decade ago.
You say you shoot landscapes, so you don't need to shoot RAW files at 12 fps? Well, you probably shoot a high-megapixel camera to get maximum detail. Those big RAW files require fast, high-capacity memory cards, and many landscape photographers do HDR images or stitched panoramas, or bracket exposures. These require making a number of shots, preferably quickly so the light doesn't change partway through the sequence. Here, again, a quick memory card is a boon.
Digital cameras have buffers, memory where image files are stored while they're being written to the memory card. Higher-end cameras have bigger buffers and, thus, can shoot more images in a burst before filling the buffer. Once the buffer is full, you have to wait until files are written to the card before you can continue shooting.
Fast memory cards (assuming your camera can take advantage of that speed; most newer ones can) mean writing images to the card goes faster, and you can shoot more quickly. Faster cards (again, assuming your card reader and computer can handle the speed) also mean the images transfer to your computer more quickly.
The most common memory cards for cameras are CompactFlash and Secure Digital (SD). Currently, the fastest CompactFlash cards are somewhat faster than the fastest SDHC and SDXC cards. (XQD cards are faster still, but so far only the Nikon D4 DSLR uses them; the D4 also uses CompactFlash cards.)
At 43x46mm, CompactFlash cards are somewhat larger than other formats like SD. But that also means they're not so easy to lose in the field. There are two types: I (3.3mm thick) and II (5mm thick). All cameras that accept CompactFlash can use Type I cards, but not all can use the thicker Type II. But the newer, faster, higher-capacity cards are all Type I, so that's not a problem. Current CF cards are available in capacities from 2 GB to 256 GB, with speeds of up to 1000X (150 MB/s read, 80 MB/s write). Things to look for are "UDMA 7" and "VPG-20." UDMA stands for Ultra Direct Memory Access, and using UDMA 7 CF cards in UDMA 7-compliant cameras results in the fastest transfer rates—up to 167 MB/s versus 133 MB/s for the earlier UDMA 6. VGA stands for Video Performance Guidance, and VPG-20 means the card can support sustained speeds of up to 20 MB/s for smooth 1080 video with no dropped frames, even with under- or overcranking (high-speed and slow-motion video).
|This Article Features Photo Zoom|
A Selection Of CompactFlash Manufacturers
CompactFlash cards are available from a number of manufacturers, including Delkin, Hoodman, Kingston, Lexar, SanDisk and Transcend (many of whom also make SD cards). Note that to enjoy the speed benefits of the latest fast cards, your camera must be compatible with their standards—put a fast card in an older, slow camera, and the card won't accept data faster than the camera can deliver it. Check your camera manual to see what cards it can use.
Delkin's (www.delkin.com) fastest CF cards are the 1000X UDMA 7 line, with reading up to 150 MB/s and writing up to 80 MB/s, and capacities from 16 GB to 128 GB (a 256 GB card is due soon). The cards support VPG profiling and carry a lifetime warranty.
|What exactly do those "X ratings" on memory cards mean? Well, one "X" is the old standard CD transfer rate of 150 KB/s, or 0.15 MB/s. Thus, 100X is 15 MB/s, 200X is 30 MB/s, 400X is 60 MB/s, 600X is 90 MB/s and 1000X is 150 MB/s. Note that these are maximum read rates; often, the maximum write rate is somewhat slower. And keep in mind that system speed depends on both the camera and the card. Putting a slow card in a fast camera will slow things down, but putting a fast card in a slow camera won't speed things up. For best burst and video performance, use the fastest card your camera can handle; see the camera's instruction manual.|
Hoodman (www.hoodmanusa.com) offers the Steel Professional CompactFlash Card 1000X in capacities from 16 GB to 64 GB, with read speeds of up to 150 MB/s and write speeds of up to 145 MB/s. The UDMA 7- and VPG-20-compliant cards come with a lifetime warranty.
Kingston's (www.kingston.com) top CF card is the Ultimate 600X in 16 GB and 32 GB capacities. It can read and write up to 90 MB/s, and comes with a lifetime warranty.
Lexar's (www.lexar.com) fastest CF card is the Professional 1000X UDMA 7, which can read up to 150 MB/s and write up to 145 MB/s. It's available in capacities from 16 GB to 128 GB, supports VPG-20 and comes with a limited lifetime warranty.
SanDisk (www.sandisk.com) offers the Extreme Pro UDMA 7 CF cards in capacities from 16 GB to 128 GB, with the 128 GB capable of speeds of up to 100 MB/s, the others to 90 MB/s. Extreme Pro cards are VPG-20-compliant and come with a lifetime limited warranty.
Transcend (www.transcendusa.com) offers a 64 GB 600X UDMA 7 CompactFlash card that can read and write up to 90 MB/s, is VPG-20-compliant and carries a limited lifetime warranty.
|Approximate Card Capacities|
|Choosing the best capacity is a personal decision that you should base upon how you shoot. If you're shooting full HD video, the highest capacity that you can afford is a necessity. Many time-lapse shooters prefer to shoot high-res JPEGs even though the images will get resized for playback. (Even if you want to render your time-lapse as a massive 4K project, the individual frames will still get resized smaller.) The reason some time-lapse shooters capture in high-res is to give themselves options down the road and to future-proof the project as much as possible. The chart below will give you a rough idea of how many images or how much HD video fits on the various card sizes. We say it's a rough idea because images compress differently and final file sizes can vary.|
|16 GB Card||32 GB Card||64 GB Card||128 GB Card||256 GB Card|
|12 MP JPEG||2000||4000||8000||16,000||32,000|
|16 MP JPEG||1600||3200||6400||12,800||25,600|
|18 MP JPEG||2400||4800||9600||19,200||38,400|
|24 MP JPEG||800||1600||3200||6400||12,800|
|12 MP RAW||800||1600||3200||6400||12,800|
|16 MP RAW||600||1200||2400||4800||9600|
|18 MP RAW||560||1020||2040||4080||9160|
|24 MP RAW||400||800||1600||3200||6400|
|Note: JPEG figures are for "highest-quality" JPEG settings; all figures are "ballpark" figures. The actual number of shots per card depends on the individual camera, the specific RAW or JPEG setting chosen and the scene content. For video, actual recording time per card depends on video format, compression and scene content. The figures for 18 MP JPEGs aren't consistent with the figures for 12 MP, 16 MP and 24 MP JPEGs because the manufacturer of the 18 MP cameras referenced uses different compression than the manufacturers of the 12 MP, 16 MP and 24 MP cameras. We compiled these figures from the published specifications provided by a number of manufacturers in their owner's manuals. *Hours:Minutes|